Below are the hardware, software, and Rhino configuration used for the Rhino IN benchmarks.


The IN benchmark tests were run using both one- and two-node Rhino clusters.

Each Rhino node is run on its own host. Simulators for the MSC and HLR are run on their own hosts, with horizontal scaleout to properly load the Rhino nodes.

Rhino’s CGIN resource adaptor requires an external TCAP stack to communicate with SS7 networks. Metaswitch’s OCSS7 stack was used for this benchmark, with two OCSS7 SGC clusters, each with two nodes within the cluster. Rhino was connected to one SGC cluster, and the simulators were connected to the other SGC cluster. Each OCSS7 SGC node ran on its own VM.

All machines used for benchmarking are provided by Amazon’s EC2 public cloud. We use exclusively c5d.2xlarge instances as described here. The c5d.2xlarge instance type has 8 vCPU (hardware threads) and 16 GiB of RAM, with up to 10 Gbps networking. Of particular note here, there are two generations of Intel hardware which may be used for any instance, entirely at Amazon’s discretion.


The IN benchmark tests used the following software.

Software Version


Oracle Corporation OpenJDK 64-Bit Server VM 11.0.7+10-LTS




Rhino configuration

For the IN benchmark tests, we made the following changes to Rhino’s default configuration.

Rhino’s memory sizes were adjusted as follows to gracefully handle the load required by this benchmark:

Table 1. JVM parameters
Parameter Value









Rhino’s default configuration was adjusted as follows:

Table 2. Rhino parameters
Parameter Value Rationale

Staging queue size


Accommodate 1 second’s worth of events in the queue without loss, as a reasonable protection against sudden traffic spikes combining badly with garbage collection pauses.

Local Memory DB size


Allow some contingency space in MemDB, just in case. Normal usage is stays below 340M, and the default is 400M.

CGIN’s default configuration was adjusted as follows:

Table 3. CGIN parameters
Parameter Value Rationale



Increase the maximum number of open dialogs from the default 100,000. This benchmark requires at least 300,000.



Increase the number of invoke and activity timers, without depending on the autosizing option.


Please review the IN benchmark results here.

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